Freqently asked questions (FAQ)

What is the price of monitoring for media operators?

The price is calculated according to a price list publicly available at, in the “Project Documentation” section. The price for media operators is based on a sum of all page views for all monitored media in a given month, and the number of entries in the NetMonitor On-line application for the month. For the price, the medium operator obtains data on visitor traffic of their medium/media and their sociodemographic distribution. Further information can be provided by SPIR.

What are full NetMonitor data and who purchases them?

Full data are the results of visitor and sociodemographics monitoring for all media participating in the research. They are typically purchased by media agencies and large media for campaign planning. The price for full data is determined according to the NetMonitor price list; a media operator receives a discount of 50% of their total contribution payment (i.e. the total of the number of page views + NetMonitor entries), up to 50% of the full data price or full data price, see the NetMonitor price list). Further information can be provided by SPIR.

What is a Real user, and what is the difference compared to a Unique user?

The Real user is an actual living person who visited the server in the monitored period. This indicator is calculated using a unique algorithm based on different information, including the size of the internet population, determined by an external off-line survey. A Unique user is typically equivalent to the cookie used to identify browsers. A single person (Real user) may use more computers/browsers or delete their cookies and thus be identified as multiple “Unique users”.  Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What are the advantages of NetMonitor server monitoring compared to other systems, such as Google Analytics?

Compared to other systems, NetMonitor provides participating and monitored media with information about visitors on the level of Real users (actual people), objective comparisons between all monitored sites as well as information on the sociodemographic profile of the users of these servers and their sections. The research follows a public methodology and being based on the continual establishment off-line survey, its parameters are continuously updated and are representative for the Czech internet population. The data are used by media agencies for the planning of advertising campaigns on the internet and are valid on the market as a “single currency” of visitor monitoring. The data are also presented to the general public in the form of public outputs and charts. The list of participants of the monitoring includes the most important and most visited Czech media and portals. The monitoring is carried out by an independent entity, ensuring its objective and impartial nature. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

How is the RU (Real users) indicator calculated?

The calculation algorithm takes into account the monitored activity of all users of the monitored section of the internet and individual servers, as a first step dealing with the situation of a single person being represented by multiple cookies (more computers used, deleting cookies etc.) or a single cookie (Unique user) representing more people (e.g. one computer in a household used by several/all of its members). The result is the number of cookies that would be monitored if no cookie was deleted during the monitored month, both for the entire internet and for each server/section separately. In the following step, Reach is determined for each server/section, based on the number of estimated cookies; this is then applied to the size of internet population, determined for the given month by an external off-line survey. For methodological reasons, RUs are available 25 days after the monitoring for the given month concludes. The algorithm for calculating RUs is described in detail in Project methodology, available at in the “Project Documentation” section. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is a Universum and how is it determined?

Primarily, a Universum is the size of the internet population, determined for the given month based on an external off-line survey. The internet population is a group of people (over 10 years of age) who have connected to the internet at least once in the given period (typically a month). For this purpose, the project has been using the Continuous Survey of the TV-metering ATO project since September 2009. Users may also encounter the term “Sociodemographic universum”, which describes the distribution of the internet population in various sociodemographic categories, such as gender, age, education etc. The source of this information is also the continuous ATO project. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is weighting and what is it used for?

Weighting is the process used to fine-tune the characteristics of the panel to correspond to the reality of the internet population. A panel may, for example, include 45% male and 55% female users, while the actual situation in the internet population is exactly the opposite. The weighting process is used to assign weights to the respondents, to make the 45% of male respondents represent 55% of the internet population, i.e. males. Similar procedure is used with other sociodemographic groups – sociodemographic weighting. Behavioural weighting is weighting applied to the total of monitored page views of a site, and its purpose is to assign weights to respondents to make their sum equal to the number of Real users, calculated by the appropriate algorithm. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What are URL masks?

URL mask is a term used when defining the sections of individual monitored servers. URL masks determine which URLs (pages) belong to which sections or are undefined. Undefined URLs are, however, still included in the overall media statistics, and are not omitted from the results. Designing URL masks is described in detail in a special document, available from the Implementor. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is an off-line report?

An off-line report is an XLS sheet including the values of basic traffic indicators for all monitored servers and their public sections. The values are divided into Total traffic (from the Czech Republic + foreign) and visits of Real users from the CR. The off-line report also includes visitor data aggregation into Operators, Packs and, last but not least, Media Categorisation. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is OLA?

OLA stands for “On-line application”, available to the public at This application includes basic server and public section traffic statistics and visitor aggregation in the form of data for Operators, Packs and Media Categorisation. The application can also be used to view and export history data, and for logged on users (actively monitored media only), it also displays statistics of private sections. This application is the only place where the values of the RUest indicator are shown. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

How are respondents assigned to panels?

Respondents are recruited to panels using questionnaires, displayed automatically on monitored servers in the form of pop-up windows. After completing this questionnaire, a respondent who meets the validation criteria becomes a member of a Pop-up Panel. The respondent is also asked to participate by installing the netSoftware monitoring application; if they agree, they become members of the Software Panel. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

How is a panel constructed?

From both panels (the software and pop-up panel), a group is selected each month. The group is selected to be as large as possible while meeting the standard requirements a panel must fulfil to be representative. The selection is made from panel members who also meet other criteria, such as the time for which they have been a panel member, for greater inter-month stability of the panel. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is SEKV and what is it used for?

SEKV is an abbreviation that stands for Structural Exclusive Continuous Research. This research aims to describe the structure of the internet population and determine the characteristics that influence internet behaviour. The respondents are asked questions about these characteristics; the criteria are then continuously monitored in the panel to ensure its representativeness. SEKV is not a one-time research; it is carried out in waves. As such, it also intends to monitor the changes and trends of the internet population over a longer time span. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

How can a medium start participating in the monitoring?

The media operator shall contact the SPIR executive office to sign a NetMonitor Monitoring Participation Contract. Once the contract is signed, a technical implementor shall generate the monitoring scripts. The monitoring itself always begins on the first day of a month; according to the methodology, the monitoring codes must be deployed at least 5 days before the monitoring begins. Further information can be provided by SPIR.

What is media categorisation good for?

Categorisation of media content in NetMonitor is used to create better readable outputs. Each medium is assigned a content category based on clearly defined rules; the categories can be used to filter visitor traffic charts. Further information can be provided by SPIR.

Who and how decides on assigning a media category?

Assigning media to content categories is performed by the project organiser when including a new medium, following predefined rules of the SPIR categorisation committee. The medium itself may suggest a category it wants to be entered into, either as a whole or by sections. If this suggestion does not run contrary to the definition of the category, the categorising committee should accept it. If the server could be reasonably entered into more than one category, it is up to the decision of the operator which it will be assigned to. In disputable cases, the SPIR categorisation committee has the deciding vote. Without the media’s suggestion, the site will not be assigned a category. The categorisation rules are described in greater detail here. Further information can be provided by SPIR and Nielsen Admosphere.

Who or what is an Operator?

From the point of view of the project, an Operator is an entity who, based on a NetMonitor Monitoring Participation Contract, pays for the monitoring of a medium/media and who receives the results of the monitoring. Each medium may belong to only one Operator; on the other hand, no medium may exist in NetMonitor without an Operator. Aggregated visitor traffic values for a given Operator are included in NetMonitor outputs. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is a Pack?

A Pack is a group of servers or their sections, composed according to an Operator’s request. It is an aggregation of traffic values of the individual servers/sections of the pack, presented as a whole in the results. Information on the composition of the Pack is available to the users.

The reach of NetMonitor is 97.7%. How was this figure determined?

NetMonitor does not monitor the entire internet, but only a part of it, several hundred servers in total. There is a certain group of internet users who, in the monitored month, do not visit any of the monitored servers. This group accounts for approximately 2.3% of internet users in the Czech Republic. The reach of NetMonitor is thus 97.7%. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What does the RUest indicator represent, how is it determined and why is it used?

For methodological reasons, the value of the RU indicator is available 25 days after the monitoring for the given month concludes. The RUest indicator was established and the methodology of its calculation was developed to fill this gap, as an interim and approximate visitor traffic indicator. RUest is determined based on historical ratios between monitored cookies and RUs calculated for previous periods. Typically, the difference between RUest and calculated RUs is a single-digit percentage. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.

What is a domain filter and what is its function?

The domain filter is a measure used to remove from public outputs, or rather not include in the first place, views that were made outside the level 2 domain reported in the outputs. The domain filter is therefore an automated check, preventing artificial increases of the monitored media traffic achieved (either on purpose or by accident) by including the monitoring script on sites that do not belong to the medium in question. Further information can be provided by Nielsen Admosphere.